The 1960 Squaw Valley Games were preceded by a controversy when the organizing committee refused to build a bobsleigh run because only nine nations had indicated an intention to take part. This was the only time that bobsledding was not included in the Olympic programme. As the Games were held in California, it seemed fitting that the chairman of the Pageantry Committee in charge of the Opening and Closing Ceremonies was none other than Walt Disney. A new sport, biathlon (a combination of cross-country skiing and shooting) was added to the Olympic programme. The first race was won by Klas Lestander of Sweden. Women competed in speed skating for the first time. Male speed skater Yevgeny Grishin gained victories in the 500m and the 1,500m, just as he had in 1956. The United States ice hockey team won an unexpected championship, upsetting both Canada and the USSR.